The latest government data suggests that so far more than 39.4 million people have received the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine which equates to 74.9% of adults in the UK; 48.9% of the adult population have also had their second dose which is an incredible achievement. On 8th June 2021 there were 13 deaths reported within 28 days of a positive test in the UK compared to 55 a year ago showing just how far we have come in the fight against COVID-19.

There are three types of test for coronavirus:

1) A PCR swab test to find out whether you currently have coronavirus. This is a throat and nasal swab, is used in symptomatic individuals and also for travel purposes.
2) A lateral flow test helps to find cases in people who may have no symptoms but are still infectious and can give the virus to others. This is also a throat/nasal swab used in asymptomatic individuals. If positive, a PCR test is required.
3) An antibody blood test (either a capillary/fingerprick or venous sample) which is used to find out whether you have either previously had coronavirus and developed some degree of immunity, or, if you have had the vaccine and raised an immune response.

What are antibodies?

Antibodies are proteins used by the immune system to identify and neutralise harmful objects e.g. viruses. When a virus like SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus enters the body, cells called B lymphocytes create antibodies to protect you, and these antibodies remain to defend against the virus if it comes back. Vaccines teach your body to mimic this response without you actually becoming unwell. This is why you develop antibodies both after natural infection with a virus and after getting a vaccine.

What can the tests tell me?

Most of these tests detect antibodies to one of two types of protein from the coronavirus:
– Nucleocapsid (N) protein
– Spike (S) protein
If you were to get infected with SARS-CoV-2, your body would make antibodies in response to multiple viral proteins, including the nucleocapsid and spike proteins.
The vaccines currently authorised for use in the UK trigger antibodies against the spike protein, so an antibody test after you get the vaccine should only detect antibodies to that spike protein, not to the nucleocapsid protein.
If you had a COVID-19 infection, both the nucleocapsid and spike protein tests would be positive because you have been infected with the whole virus.
Some tests look for antibodies to both the spike protein and the nucleocapsid protein to distinguish between vaccination and infection.
Certain tests look for specific antibodies to these proteins, depending on how long it has been since you were infected or vaccinated: IgG and IgM antibodies.

What are the differences between IgG and IgM?

IgM (immunoglobulin M) antibodies are found in the blood and lymph fluid and are the first type of antibody made as a response to an infection. They prompt other immune system cells to eliminate foreign substances. IgM antibodies make up about 5 -10% of all antibodies in your body.
IgG (immunoglobulin G) antibodies are found in all body fluids and are the most common, making up 75 -80% of the antibodies in your body. They are very important in fighting viral infections.
IgG tend to be longer-lived and are typically the antibodies that are tested for in the clinical and research setting to look at long-term protection or immunity. IgM is more often seen early in infection or early after vaccination.
It is well known that IgG (and immunity levels) do reduce in the months after infection and this test will enable you to monitor your IgG levels over time if you would like to monitor this.

Why Do We Need Antibody Tests for COVID-19 and How to Interpret Test Results | Diazyme Laboratories, Inc.

What are the different antibody tests offered by Preventicum?

At Preventicum we are delighted to be able offer our clients the opportunity to have an antibody test to identify past infection with COVID-19 and/or response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations. The two tests available are developed by Roche and VirTus.
Both tests detect antibodies developed in response to the vaccines currently in use in the UK. They utilise the receptor binding domain of Spike antigen. This is different to the older antibody tests that looked at the antibody response to the nucleocapsid protein and was targeted at immune response after infection. These older tests cannot detect the antibody response following a vaccination.

The Roche test gives the quantitative result for the total antibodies. The result is considered positive if it is >0.8.

The VirTus test gives the quantitative results for both IgG (long-term antibodies) and IgM (short-term antibodies). This test also provides an interpretation as to whether levels are very high, high, medium or low.

‘Having quantitative testing is important as it tells you how strong your immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is. It also gives you a baseline measure so you can check whether your levels have changed over time.’ Professor Sebastian Johnston, CMO, VirTus

How accurate the tests?
Roche sensitivity is 99.98% and specificity 98.8%.
VirTus sensitivity 86.9% (community samples) & 100% (hospital samples) and specificity 98.1%
What is the difference between a quantitative test and a qualitative test?
Some antibody tests are qualitative, which means they will simply give you a positive or negative result for antibodies rather than an actual level. Others are quantitative, which means they provide an actual antibody level, or titre.
Up until recently antibody tests simply gave positive or negative results, these new advanced tests provide numerical results to give you the level of COVID-19 specific antibodies in your blood, which further enhances understanding of the level of your antibody response.
The SCOV and VirTus blood tests that we offer are both quantitative tests which gives more in depth information around your antibody response.

What does an antibody result mean and does this affect what I can do?

There are three possible results after taking an antibody test: positive, negative or indeterminate (borderline).
A positive result means that COVID-19 antibodies have been found in your blood, which indicates that you have previously been infected by coronavirus or received the vaccine. This does not mean that you are immune to coronavirus.

We still do not know how much immunity we get from a COVID-19 infection or the vaccination so even if the antibody result is positive it is possible that one could be infected a second time or carry and transmit the virus to infect others. We also do not yet know how long this immunity lasts for, immunity to other coronaviruses can wane quickly. Current data indicates that a positive antibody result can protect against COVID-19 for at least 6 months.

If the test gives you a negative result, it means that you do not have the antibodies to indicate that you have had coronavirus so it is less likely that you had had COVID-19, or this is linked to your T cell response.

You can also have an indeterminate result, meaning that the test cannot confirm either a positive or negative result. If this is the case, we would recommend that you repeat the test again in a couple of weeks’ time.

At this stage there is no formal guidance to identify how antibody levels correlate with immunity. We do not know if an individual with a positive result showing presence of IgG levels following being infected with SARS-CoV-2 will be protected, either fully or partially from future infection, or for how long protective immunity may last.
Due to this, regardless of antibody test results our behaviour should continue in line with the government guidance around social distancing, hand washing and the use of PPE.

What if I have no antibodies?

It would be rare to have no antibodies after receiving the vaccine, but it is important to recognise that the COVID-19 vaccine may confer protection that goes beyond antibodies. We also generate T cell immunity and it is thought the vaccinations also causes a T cell response in the body. This is not as easily tested.
Regardless of the outcome of antibody testing it is imperative to continue to follow government guidelines on distancing, hand washing and wearing masks.
When can I have the antibody test?
Testing can be undertaken from 14 days following exposure, onset of symptoms or post-vaccination. The incubation period of COVID-19 ranges from between 1 to 14 days, with the majority of cases manifesting with symptoms at 3–5 days. We would recommend testing after 21 days.
Where can I have the antibody test?
This can be done on the day of your Preventicum health assessment. We can also provide postal options for capillary samples.

How much does an antibody test cost?

The Roche test costs £100
The VirTus test costs £260

When do I get my results?
The Roche test takes 1 working day from receipt at the laboratory.
The VirTus test takes 2-3 working days from receipt at the laboratory.

For more information on our COVID-19 antibody tests, please email info@preventicum.co.uk or call 020 7605 6900

CANCER 30 GENE PANEL

Overview

All of us have a 1 in 2 lifetime risk of cancer, but some common cancers – breast, melanoma, pancreatic, prostate and ovarian – are known to occur more frequently in families, passing from one generation to the next. This is because certain gene mutations can be inherited.

Perhaps the most commonly talked about are the BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 genes, where mutations can indicate increased risk of developing breast, melanoma, pancreatic, prostate and ovarian cancers.

The 30-gene Pan Cancer Panel test from Everything Genetic, examines BRCA1 and BRCA2 and an additional 28 genes which can also indicate risk in the areas of uterine, colorectal (bowel) and stomach cancer.

Why have this test?

Knowing you have a genetic mutation enables you to make sure you have the appropriate regular screening and investigations. Many mutations are known to be hereditary; if you have a mutation, there is a 50% chance that your siblings and children will have it too.

What genes are tested?

Genes APC, ATM, BAP1, BARD1, BMPR1A, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, CDH1, CDK4*, CDKN2A(p14ARF), CDKN2A(p16INK4a), CHEK2, EPCAM*, GREM1*, MITF*, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, MUTYH, NBN, PALB2, PMS2*, POLD1*, POLE*, PTEN, RAD51C, RAD51D, SMAD4, STK11, TP53.

What does the test involve?

This test is a simple saliva test that you can do in the clinic on the day of your assessment, or in your own home of you prefer – we do not need a blood sample. If you choose to add this test after your health assessment, you will receive a kit in the post with clear instructions on taking your sample, together with all the paperwork you need to sign and post to Everything Genetic.

How long does reporting take?

Once your sample is received at the US laboratory, it will be sequenced, and your genes analysed. A report is then generated, usually within 5 weeks of the laboratory receiving your sample.

How will I get my results?

Your Preventicum doctor will explain the process in your consultation, and you will also have a counselling session with a consultant (usually the day after your Preventicum assessment) so you understand this fully before consenting for the test.

Once your genes have been analysed, you will be sent your results from Preventicum. If there are any positive findings you will also be contacted by a Consultant Geneticist to discuss these, the implications, and next steps. If the results are negative but you still wish to discuss these further, a consultation can be arranged at no extra charge.

Discussing your results with a geneticist and Preventicum doctor will help you to:

  • Understand your risks
  • Monitor your health
  • Consider your lifestyle or diet
  • Protect your family

MUSCULOSKELETAL MOVEMENT SCREEN AND STRENGTH & CONDITIONING COACHING

Overview

Preventicum have partnered with Pure Sports Medicine (PSM), world-class sport and exercise medicine specialists to offer a musculoskeletal movement screen together with strength and conditioning coaching. PSM’s team will work with you to prevent, diagnose, treat and manage any injuries, bringing a multi-disciplinary, team-based approach to your health management.

Why have this test?

  • If you have an existing injury such as back or joint pain.
  • You want to improve or start a new exercise regime.
  • You are trying to improve your lifestyle.

What are the benefits of this screen?

  • Helps you to prevent injury and become injury resistant
  • Improve your ability to resist ailments
  • Improve and optimise your performance in your chosen sport

What can I expect?

This hour-long session starts with a specialist musculoskeletal physiotherapist consultation to determine injuries, exercise history and video gait analysis. All sessions are tailored to the individual and look at relevant lifestyle factors with a clinical assessment of any injuries.

Following this, you will meet a strength and conditioning coach for a full body movement screen and in-depth strength assessment, using a mix of gym equipment, clinical tests, and hand-held strength testing for specific muscle groups.

You will leave with a management plan including any recommendations for further treatment and a letter from your physiotherapist, detailing your findings from the day will be included in your Preventicum final report.

ESSENTIAL

Consultation with a Preventicum doctor
Lasting up to 50 minutes, you will have the opportunity to discuss your current health, medical and family history and any concerns you may have.

Detailed physical examination with a Preventicum doctor
An examination of the eyes, ears, mouth, throat, heart, lungs, musculoskeletal system, nervous system, gastrointestinal system and skin. In men we examine the groin, testes and prostate* (over 50) and in women we perform a breast examination and gynaecological examination and smear if required.*
*With consent and chaperone if requested.

Vital observations
Height, weight, BMI, resting heart rate, blood pressure

Over 45 blood tests and urine analysis
Including a full blood count, comprehensive cholesterol profile, liver and kidney function tests, bone profile, iron studies, inflammatory markers, thyroid function in women, HbA1c (diabetes test), vitamin D, and PSA on men over 50 years.

Ultrasound examinations
We scan the carotid arteries, abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, pancreas, kidneys, spleen, bladder, uterus and ovaries in women and the prostate in men.

Echocardiogram
A non-invasive ultrasound examination using high-frequency sound waves to create detailed pictures of your heart. We look at the structure and function of your heart including the valves and can record dynamic changes within this moving organ to see how the heart is managing blood flow around the body.

Resting electrocardiogram (ECG)
ECG is used in diagnosing many electrical heart abnormalities and can help to show if there is the possibility of significant coronary artery disease.

Spirometry (lung function test)
Spirometry is used to determine lung function and to help to detect lung disease.

Body Composition Analysis
The InBody 720 provides a detailed, highly accurate map of body composition, including visceral fat, using 30 impedance measurements.

Audiometry (hearing test)
This test measures the sensitivity of your hearing across a range of different frequencies.

Tonometry (glaucoma/eye test)

Results consultation
The opportunity to go through your results from the day with your Preventicum doctor and discuss further management and referrals as needed. Please note that some of the results take slightly longer to analyse and will be available in your final report.

Preventicum Lifestyle Prescription
A bespoke lifestyle prescription covering the key areas of nutrition, sleep, exercise, relaxation and environment, to help you optimise your health and wellbeing.

Follow-on consultation
This 20-minute virtual follow-on consultation will take place 6 months after your assessment or at a time of your specification.

For more information, please see our brochure.

ELITE

Consultation and physical examination with a Preventicum doctor
Lasting up to 60 minutes, you will have the opportunity to discuss your current health, medical and family history and any concerns you may have. Your doctor will also carry out a physical examination of the eyes, ears, mouth, throat, heart, lungs, musculoskeletal system, nervous system, gastrointestinal system and skin. In men we examine the groin, testes and prostate* (over 50) and in women we perform a breast examination and gynaecological examination and smear if required.*
*With consent and chaperone if requested.

Vital observations
Height, weight, BMI, resting heart rate, blood pressure.

Over 50 blood tests and urine analysis
Including a full blood count, comprehensive cholesterol profile, liver and kidney function tests, bone profile, iron studies, inflammatory markers, thyroid function, HbA1c (diabetes test), vitamin and mineral profile including vitamin D, and PSA on men over 50 years.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
MRI scans of your brain, heart, central arteries and organs of the abdomen and the pelvis as well as a whole spinal scan including your cervical, thoracic and lumber spine. Our two, state-of-the-art MRI scanners are equipped with ‘in-bore’ technology, ambient lighting and a choice of music or film to create an immersive audio video visual experience.

Ultrasound examinations
We scan the carotid arteries, abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, pancreas, kidneys, spleen, bladder, uterus and ovaries in women and the prostate in men.

VO2max*
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, also known as VO2max, is a measure of aerobic, cardiac fitness and endurance capacity.
*Please note that during COVID-19 restrictions, this aerosol generating test is not being offered. You may book to return for this at a later date, or we will refund you the cost for this test.

Resting electrocardiogram (ECG)
ECG is used to diagnose electrical heart abnormalities and can help to show if there is the possibility of significant coronary artery disease.

Spirometry (lung function test)
Spirometry is used to determine lung function and to help to detect lung disease.

Pure Sports musculoskeletal movement screen and strength & conditioning coaching
A consultation and movement screen with a specialist musculoskeletal physiotherapist at Pure Sports (on-site) to determine injuries, exercise history and gait analysis. A sports coach will then take you through an in-depth strength assessment using a mix of gym equipment, clinical tests, and hand-held strength testing for specific muscle groups.

Body Composition Analysis
A detailed, highly accurate map of body composition, including visceral fat, using 30 impedance measurements.

Audiometry (hearing test)
This test measures the sensitivity of your hearing across a range of different frequencies.

Tonometry (glaucoma/eye test)

Radiologist consultation
A results consultation with one of our highly experienced consultant radiologists. A virtual tour viewing hundreds of your MRI scan images, including a video of your beating heart and you will be given a USB of your images to take away on the day.

Results consultation
The opportunity to go through your results from the day with your Preventicum doctor and discuss further management and referrals as needed. Please note that some of the results take slightly longer to analyse and will be available in your final report.

Preventicum Lifestyle Prescription
A bespoke lifestyle prescription covering the key areas of nutrition, sleep, exercise, relaxation and environment, to help you optimise your health and wellbeing.

Follow-on consultation
This 30-minute virtual follow-on consultation will take place 6 months after your assessment or at a time of your specification.

For more information, please see our brochure.